Groundwater and surface water interaction is an essential component of the hydrological cycle. The hydraulic connectivity and exchange of water between surface water (e.g. rivers, lakes, wetlands) and underlying aquifers provide many ecosystem services that sustain human and ecological well-being. Climate change, increased population, and industrial growth have resulted in substantial environmental (e.g. land use and land cover, climate, groundwater) changes across the globe. As a result, decline in groundwater levels, drying of streams, shrinking lakes, wetlands, and estuaries have been observed across the world. This generates concerns about the effects of such environmental changes on groundwater and surface water interactions, and on the quality and quantity of water resources. This chapter presents an overview of groundwater and surface water interactions, pressing environmental change issues centered on natural and anthropogenic environmental changes, and available management tools that quantify the integrated groundwater and surface water flow processes. This chapter also briefly discusses exciting research opportunities enabled by satellite remote sensing. We close in with a discussion of future management challenges and strategies for sustainable use of groundwater and surface water resources. One outcome of this chapter is to provide resource managers, researchers, consultant groups, and government agencies basic understanding of the types, mechanism, and effects of natural and anthropogenic landuse changes on groundwater and surface water interactions, and available management tools for studying groundwater and surface water interactions.
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